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一直有家长咨询,哪些阅读素材可帮孩子提高阅读能力,以更好的应对SAT/ACT考试,乃至未来的大学学习。阅读能力提高一通百通。虽然每个人都有阅读偏好,但无论从哪方面入手,一旦有了阅读积累和经验,整体阅读能力都会相应提高。
 
一位学生读初中时没有太多阅读量,但高中阶段对英文小说产生浓厚兴趣,一本接一本的读,甚至偏爱复杂文风,句子越晦涩读起来越过瘾。还有一位学生是“哈迷”,读完了哈利波特全集。一位美高学生告诉我学校对阅读抓得很严,并告诉我她女朋友有语言天分,为了不差她太远,只能更努力的读,最后裸考ACT阅读35,捡回不少面子。还有位学生片偏好《经济学家》杂志中透露出的浓郁阴谋论气息。还有位美高学生喜欢在网上泡游戏论坛、看维基百科。这些学生都有一个阅读启动,无论出于个人兴趣、学校压力、还是爱情的力量。
 
在理想状态下,或孩子的时间足够多,窃以为,阅读的启动要基于学生的某种内因(主要是兴趣),而不是上来就要求读心目中的名著、或从某老师那里获得一个书单、或对网上的分级阅读课如获至宝。最好不要笼统的说,因为要考SAT,所以必须读X本小说。事实上,不是必须读小说才能提高阅读能力;而从提分的目的出发,也很难构成持续阅读的动力。养成阅读习惯与减肥是一样的,开始时通常有点难,必须找到内在快乐和意义,一旦养成了习惯,就是自发行为了。
 
然而,不是每个学生都能对阅读产生内在兴趣,也许时间已来不及去挖掘阅读的意义,最简单的方法是在某个范围内找到一些相对感兴趣的内容,制定详细的阅读计划,每天坚持。虽无太多趣味,但把阅读分解为具体的阅读步骤,还是有效的。社会心理学告诉我们:行为决定态度。当我们尚未发掘出阅读兴趣,那就先读起来。不止一位学生告诉我,坚持每天读几十页小说,二、三个月后阅读水平的确有提高。此外,学习还有激励效应,越喜欢越投入,越不喜欢越逃避。只要前期刚性计划能起作用,后续坚持就不难。
 
“临渊慕鱼,不如退而织网”,与其四处打听怎样提高SAT阅读分数,或不停学习阅读答题技巧,不如踏踏实实制定阅读计划,每天坚持读几十页。如果不能从阅读兴趣出发,那就从不太讨厌的题材入手,先读起来。基于“行为决定态度”的立场,我们找到美国CCSS(Common Core State Standards)里推荐的分级阅读材料清单,推荐给各位家长和学生,希望对诸位有益。
 
© Copyright 2010. National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved.[i]
 
美高9-12年级分类阅读材料[ii]
 
Grades 9–10
 
Stories
 
  1. Homer.The Odyssey
  2. Ovid.Metamorphoses
  3. Gogol,Nikolai. “The Nose.”
  4. DeVoltaire, F. A. M. Candide, Or The Optimist
  5. Turgenev,Ivan. Fathers and Sons
  6. Henry,O. “The Gift of the Magi.”
  7. Kafka,Franz. The Metamorphosis
  8. Steinbeck,John. The Grapes of Wrath
  9. Bradbury,Ray. Fahrenheit 451
  10. Olsen,Tillie. “I Stand Here Ironing.”
  11. Achebe,Chinua. Things Fall Apart
  12. Lee,Harper. To Kill A Mockingbird
  13. Shaara,Michael. The Killer Angels
  14. Tan,Amy. The Joy Luck Club
  15. Álvarez,Julia. In the Time of the Butterflies
  16. Zusak,Marcus. The Book Thief
 
Drama
 
  1. Sophocles.Oedipus Rex
  2. Shakespeare,William. The Tragedy of Macbeth
  3. Ibsen,Henrik. A Doll’s House
  4. Williams,Tennessee. The Glass Menagerie
  5. Ionesco,Eugene. Rhinoceros
  6. Fugard,Athol. “Master Harold”…and the boys
 
Poetry
 
  1. Shakespeare,William. “Sonnet 73.”
  2. Donne,John. “Song.”
  3. Shelley,Percy Bysshe. “Ozymandias.”
  4. Poe,Edgar Allan. “The Raven.”
  5. Dickinson,Emily. “We Grow Accustomed to the Dark.”
  6. Houseman,A. E. “Loveliest of Trees.”
  7. Johnson,James Weldon. “Lift Every Voice and Sing.”
  8. Cullen,Countee. “Yet Do I Marvel.”
  9. Auden,Wystan Hugh. ”Musée des Beaux Arts.”
  10. Walker,Alice. “Women.”
  11. Baca,Jimmy Santiago. “I Am Offering This Poem to You.”
 
Informational Texts: English Language Arts
 
  1. Henry,Patrick. “Speech to the Second Virginia Convention.”
  2. Washington,George. “Farewell Address.”
  3. Lincoln,Abraham. “Gettysburg Address.”
  4. Lincoln,Abraham. “Second Inaugural Address.”
  5. Roosevelt,Franklin Delano. “State of the Union Address.”
  6. Hand,Learned. “I Am an American Day Address.”
  7. Smith,Margaret Chase. “Remarks to the Senate in Support of a Declaration of Conscience.”
  8. King,Jr., Martin Luther. “Letter from Birmingham Jail.”
  9. King,Jr., Martin Luther. “I Have a Dream: Address Delivered at the March onWashington, D.C., for Civil Rights on August 28, 1963.”
  10. Angelou,Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
  11. Wiesel,Elie. “Hope, Despair and Memory.”
  12. Reagan,Ronald. “Address to Students at Moscow State University.”
  13. Quindlen,Anna. “A Quilt of a Country.”
 
Informational Texts: History/SocialStudies
 
  1. Brown,Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: AnIndian History of the American West
  2. Connell,Evan S. Son of the Morning Star: Custerand the Little Bighorn
  3. Gombrich,E. H. The Story of Art, 16th Edition
  4. Kurlansky,Mark. Cod: A Biography of the Fish ThatChanged the World
  5. Haskins,Jim. Black, Blue and Gray: AfricanAmericans in the Civil War
  6. Dash,Joan. The Longitude Prize
  7. Thompson,Wendy. The Illustrated Book of GreatComposers
  8. Mann,Charles C. Before Columbus: The Americasof 1491
 
Informational Texts:Science,Mathematics,and Technical Subjects
 
  1. Euclid.Elements
  2. Cannon,Annie J. “Classifying the Stars.”
  3. Walker,Jearl. “Amusement Park Physics.”
  4. Preston,Richard. The Hot Zone: A Terrifying TrueStory
  5. Devlin,Keith. Life by the Numbers
  6. Hoose,Phillip. The Race to Save Lord God Bird
  7. Hakim,Joy. The Story of Science: Newton at theCenter
  8. Nicastro,Nicholas. Circumference: Eratosthenes andthe Ancient Quest to Measure the Globe
  9. U.S.Environmental Protection Agency/U.S. Department of Energy. Recommended Levels of Insulation
 
Grades11–CCR[iii]
 
Stories
 
  1. Chaucer,Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales
  2. deCervantes, Miguel. Don Quixote
  3. Austen,Jane. Pride and Prejudice
  4. Poe,Edgar Allan. “The Cask of Amontillado.”
  5. Brontë,Charlotte. Jane Eyre
  6. Hawthorne,Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter
  7. Dostoevsky,Fyodor. Crime and Punishment
  8. Jewett,Sarah Orne. “A White Heron.”
  9. Melville,Herman. Billy Budd, Sailor
  10. Chekhov,Anton. “Home.”
  11. Fitzgerald,F. Scott. The Great Gatsby
  12. Faulkner,William. As I Lay Dying
  13. Hemingway,Ernest. A Farewell to
  14. Hurston,Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God
  15. Borges,Jorge Luis. “The Garden of Forking Paths.”
  16. Bellow,Saul. The Adventures of Augie March
  17. Morrison,Toni. The Bluest Eye
  18. Garcia,Cristina. Dreaming in Cuban
  19. Lahiri,Jhumpa. The Namesake
 
Drama
 
  1. Shakespeare,William. The Tragedy of Hamlet
  2. Molière,Jean-Baptiste Poquelin. Tartufe
  3. Wilde,Oscar. The Importance of Being Earnest
  4. Wilder,Thornton. Our Town: A Play in Three Acts
  5. Miller,Arthur. Death of a Salesman
  6. Hansberry,Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun
  7. Soyinka,Wole. Death and the King’s Horseman: APlay
 
Poetry
 
  1. LiPo. “A Poem of Changgan.”
  2. Donne,John. “A Valediction Forbidding Mourning.”
  3. Wheatley,Phyllis. “On Being Brought From Africa to America.”
  4. Keats,John. “Ode on a Grecian Urn.”
  5. Whitman,Walt. “Song of Myself.”
  6. Dickinson,Emily. “Because I Could Not Stop for Death.”
  7. Tagore,Rabindranath. “Song VII.”
  8. Eliot,T. S. “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock.”
  9. Pound,Ezra. “The River Merchant’s Wife: A Letter.”
  10. Frost,Robert. “Mending Wall.”
  11. Neruda,Pablo. “Ode to My Suit.”
  12. Bishop,Elizabeth. “Sestina.”
  13. OrtizCofer, Judith. “The Latin Deli: An Ars Poetica.”
  14. Dove,Rita. “Demeter’s Prayer to Hades.”
  15. Collins,Billy. “Man Listening to Disc.”
 
Informational Texts: English Language Arts
 
  1. Paine,Thomas. Common Sense
  2. Jefferson,Thomas. The Declaration of Independence
  3. UnitedStates. The Bill of Rights (Amendments One through Ten of the United StatesConstitution)
  4. Thoreau,Henry David. Walden
  5. Emerson,Ralph Waldo. “Society and Solitude.”
  6. Porter,Horace. “Lee Surrenders to Grant, April 9th, 1865.”
  7. Chesterton,G. K. “The Fallacy of Success.”
  8. Mencken,H. L. The American Language, 4th Edition
  9. Wright,Richard. Black Boy
  10. Orwell,George. “Politics and the English Language.”
  11. Hofstadter,Richard. “Abraham Lincoln and the Self-Made Myth.”
  12. Tan,Amy. “Mother Tongue.”
  13. Anaya,Rudolfo. “Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry.”
 
Informational Texts: History/SocialStudies
 
  1. Tocqueville,Alexis de. Democracy in America
  2. Declaration ofSentiments bythe Seneca Falls Conference
  3. Douglass,Frederick. “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?: An Address Delivered inRochester, New York, on 5 July 1852.”
  4. An American Primer. Edited by Daniel J.Boorstin
  5. Lagemann,Ellen Condliffe. “Education.”
  6. McPherson,James M. What They Fought For 1861–1865
  7. The American Reader:Words that Moved a Nation, 2nd Edition
  8. Amar,Akhil Reed. America’s Constitution: ABiography
  9. McCullough,David. 1776
  10. Bell,Julian. Mirror of the World: A NewHistory of Art
  11. FedViews by the FederalReserve Bank of San Francisco
 
Informational Texts:Science,Mathematics,and Technical Subjects
 
  1. Paulos,John Allen. Innumeracy: MathematicalIlliteracy and Its Consequences
  2. Gladwell,Malcolm. The Tipping Point: How LittleThings Can Make a Big Difference
  3. Tyson,Neil deGrasse. “Gravity in Reverse: The Tale of Albert Einstein’s ‘GreatestBlunder.’”
  4. Calishain,Tara, and Rael Dornfest. Google Hacks:Tips & Tools for Smarter Searching, 2nd Edition
  5. Kane,Gordon. “The Mysteries of Mass.”
  6. Fischetti,Mark. “Working Knowledge: Electronic Stability Control.”
  7. U.S.General Services Administration. Executive Order 13423: Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management
  8. Kurzweil,Ray. “The Coming Merger of Mind and Machine.”
  9. Gibbs,W. Wayt. “Untangling the Roots of Cancer.”
  10. Gawande, Atul. “The Cost Conundrum: Health Care Costsin McAllen, Texas.” 
 
[i]文件内容已按要求声明版权,资料学习分享使用,并用于非营利目的。
[ii]中文题目不属于原文件内容,仅为方便读者临时添加。
[iii] College and Career Readiness: 高中毕业生为了就业或上大学所需的能力准备;此处可理解为12年级。
 


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